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Entities engaged in treating, storing, and/or disposing of hazardous waste are called TSDFs or treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The occupier or operator of the hazardous waste TSDFs must obtain a permit to construct and operate these facilities. Additionally, it must have a Transport, Storage Disposal Facility Agreement for successful Hazardous Waste Management.

TSDF - Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility - Overview

Hazardous waste management has been one of the critical environmental problems in the last few years. Notably, waste generation increases with increasing population, urbanisation, industrialisation etc. Undoubtedly, hazardous waste poses a serious threat not only to the environment but to public health also. Thus, proper attention must be paid to appropriate storage, transportation, segregation and disposal of hazardous waste to reduce its environmental effects. Having said that, this also highlights the need for treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs).

TSDFs receive hazardous wastes for their environmentally sound treatment, storage and disposal. The upcoming sections describe the activities of TSDFs in detail.


This phase involves using many processes, like oxidation or incineration, to change the composition or character of hazardous wastes. Some treatment processes allow the hazardous waste to be recycled and reused in manufacturing, while other methods dramatically reduce its quantity.


It includes temporarily retaining hazardous waste (HW) until disposed of or treated. Hazardous waste is usually stored safely before disposal or treatment. Also, care must be taken that the tanks, containers, drip pads, containment buildings, waste piles or surface impoundments that comply with the regulations must be used to store HW.


This phase includes permanently retaining the HW. The most common disposal facility is a landfill, where HW is disposed of in carefully designed units intended to protect surface and groundwater resources.

However, there is a lot more that goes into a successful TSDF. One must comply with Hazardous Waste Management Rules and obtain necessary licenses and agreements. Here's all you need to know about becoming a TSDF operator or occupier.

Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) (HOWM) Rules, 2016

These rules apply to managing hazardous and other wastes as mentioned in the Schedules to these rules. However, these rules do not apply to -

(a) wastes produced due to operation from ships more than five kilometres of the relevant baseline as included under the norms of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (44 of 1958) and the norms made thereunder and as amended gradually;

(b) waste-water and exhaust gases as included under the norms of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974) & the Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 & the norms made thereunder and as amended gradually;

(c) radio-active wastes as included under the norms of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) and the guidelines made thereunder and as amended gradually;

(d) wastes included under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, made under the Act and as amended gradually; and

(e) bio-medical wastes are included under the Bio-Medical Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998, made under the Act & as amended gradually.lly.


Hazardous waste is any waste which, because of features like chemical, physical, biological, toxic, reactive, flammable, explosive or corrosive, causes or is likely to cause danger to the environment or health, whether alone or in contact with other substances or wastes. This waste must include the following -

  • (i) waste mentioned in column (3) of Schedule I;
  • (ii) waste having equal to or more than the concentration limits mentioned for the constituents in class A and B of Schedule II or any of the characteristics as mentioned in class C of Schedule II; and
  • (iii) wastes mentioned in Part A of Schedule III concerning the import or export of such wastes or those not mentioned in Part A but exhibiting hazardous characteristics mentioned in Part C of Schedule III.

A captive treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) is a facility constructed within the premises of an occupier for the treatment, storage and disposal of wastes produced during processing, manufacture, treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, use, collection, conversion, destruction, offering for transfer, sale or the like of hazardous and other wastes; A common TSDF (treatment, storage and disposal facility) is a common facility identified and set up personally or jointly or severally by the occupier, operator of a facility, State Government or any association of occupiers that must be used as a common facility by multiple occupiers or actual users for treatment, storage and disposal of the hazardous and other wastes (HOW);

Storage means storing any hazardous or other waste for a temporary time interval, at the end of which such waste is processed or disposed of; and

A facility is any establishment wherein processes similar to the production, handling, collection, treatment, reception, storage, reuse, recovery, recycling, preprocessing, co-processing, disposal and utilisation of hazardous and, or other wastes are performed.

TSDF (Treatment, storage and disposal facility) for hazardous and other wastes

(1) The State Government, operator, the occupier of a facility, or any association of occupiers must personally or jointly or severally is responsible for identifying a location for setting up the facility for treatment, storage and disposal of the HOW in the state.

(2) The occupier of a captive facility or operator of a common facility must design and establish the treatment, storage and disposal facility according to the technical norms issued by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) regarding this gradually and must obtain State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) consent for design and layout of the same.

(3) The SPCB must regularly analyse the captive or common TSDF's establishment and operation.

(4) The occupier of a captive facility or operator of a common facility is responsible for the facility's safe and environmentally sound operation and its closure and post-closure phase, according to the guidelines or standard operating procedures (SOPs) issued by the CPCB gradually.

(5) The occupier of a captive facility or operator of a common facility must maintain records of how handled by him in Form 3.

(6) The occupier of a captive facility or operator of a common facility must file an annual return in Form 4 to the SPCB on or before 30th June following the financial year to which that return relates.

(7) The operator of the TSDF must furnish the following details in Form 1, Part - C.

  • (i) Location of the site with layout map;
  • (ii) Safe storage of the waste and storage capacity;
  • (iii) The treatment processes and their capacities;
  • (iv) Secured landfills;
  • (v) Incineration, if any;
  • (vi) Leachate collection and treatment system;
  • (vii) Fire fighting systems;
  • (viii) Environmental management plan including monitoring; and
  • (ix) Arrangement for transportation of waste from generators
  • (x) Provide details of any other activities undertaken at the TSDF site.
  • (xi) Attach a copy of prior Environmental Clearance.

Packaging and labelling

(1) Any occupier handling hazardous or other wastes and operator of the TSDF must guarantee that the HOWs are packaged in a way suitable for safe storage, handling and transport according to the guidelines issued by the CPCB gradually. The labelling must be done according to the Form 8.

(2) The label must be weatherproof, of non-washable material and easily visible.

Transportation of hazardous and other wastes (HOWs)

(1) The transport of the HOW must be according to the norms of these rules and the norms made by the Central Government under the Motor Vehicles Act (MVA), 1988 and the guidelines issued by the CPCB gradually regarding the same.

(2) In the case of transporting hazardous and other waste for final disposal to a facility located in a state except the state where the waste is produced, the sender must obtain a 'No Objection Certificate' from the SPCB (SPCB NOC) of both the states.

Records and returns

(1) The occupier handling HOWs and operator of the disposal facility must maintain records of such operations in Form 3.

(2) The operator of the disposal facility and occupier handling HOWs must submit annual returns to the SPCB in Form 4. The following details must be provided -

  • 1. Name and address of facility:
  • 2. Authorisation No. and Date of issue:
  • 3. Name of the authorized person and full address with telephone, fax number and e-mail:
  • 4. Production during the year (product-wise), wherever applicable Part B - TSDF operators must fill this part
  • 1. Total quantity received -
  • 2. Quantity treated –
  • 3. Quantity in stock at the starting of the year -
  • 4. Quantity disposed of in landfills as such and after treatment –
  • 5. Quantity processed other than specified above -
  • 6. Quantity incinerated (if applicable) -
  • 7. Quantity in storage at the year's end - 

(3) The SPCB, based on the annual returns received from the operators and the occupiers of the facilities for disposal of HOWs, must prepare an annual inventory of the waste produced, recovered, recycled, utilised, including co-processed, re-exported and disposed of and submit to the CPCB by the 30th September annually. The SPSCB must also prepare the inventory of actual users, hazardous waste generators and captive and common disposal facilities and submit the information to CPCB every two years.

Accident reporting

Where an accident occurs at the facility of the occupier handling HOWs and operator of the disposal facility or during transportation, the operator, occupier or transporter must immediately inform the SPCB via e-mail and telephone about the accident and subsequently submit a report in Form 11.

Liability of occupier and operator of a disposal facility

(1) The occupier and operator of the disposal facility are liable for all damages caused to the third party or environment because of improper handling and hazardous waste management.

(2) The operator and the occupier of the disposal facility are liable to pay financial penalties as imposed for any violation of the norms under these rules by the SPCB with the prior approval of the CPCB.

Responsibilities of the TSDF operators

The TSDF operator stands responsible for:

  • Accepting hazardous wastes at TSDF from the authorised producers by SPCB/PCC.
  • Setting up a system for optimal movement of hazardous waste, its treatment and disposal operations may include resource recovery/recycling, as the case may be.
  • Fingerprinting analysis to validate that the waste is the responsibility of the TSDF operator operating according to the conditions stipulated in the authorisation.
  • Guaranteeing waste treatment and/or disposal as per Hazardous Waste (M&H) Rules, 1989, as amended.
  • Undertake cleanup operation in case of contamination resulting from TSDF.
  • Pollution and the smell generated out of TSDF operations and subsequent reduction.
  • Compliance with regulations regarding the occupational safety and health of TSDF employees.
  • Suppose there are differences in the monitoring results. In that case, the producer may accept the operator's results or send their samples to a mutually agreed third-party analysis at their own cost.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • 1. How is waste disposal at a TSDF take place?

    Waste received at landfill locations can be handled in many ways, especially Disposal of hazardous waste -

    • in a landfill
    • surface impoundment, or
    • Incinerator.
  • 2. How is hazardous waste labelling done according to Form 8?

    The hazardous waste labelling is done according to the Form 8 -

    • 1. The background colour of the label should be fluorescent yellow.
    • 2. The word ‘HANDLE WITH CARE’ and 'HAZARDOUS WASTES' are to be prominent and written in red, in Hindi, English and vernacular language.
    • 3. The word 'OTHER WASTES' is to be written prominently in orange in Hindi, English and vernacular language.
    • 4. The label must be of non-washable material and weatherproof.

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